Top Bra Camisole Undershirt. Some clothing is permanent press , having been treated with a coating such as polytetrafluoroethylene that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing. Whatever the weather, stay protected in winter warmers to summer shower shelters. Evolution of hair and History of clothing and textiles.
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Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology , have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice that suggests clothing originated around , years ago.
Body lice are an indicator of clothes-wearing, since most humans have sparse body hair, and lice thus require human clothing to survive. Their research suggests that the invention of clothing may have coincided with the northward migration of modern Homo sapiens away from the warm climate of Africa , thought to have begun between 50, and , years ago. However, a second group of researchers using similar genetic methods estimate that clothing originated around , years ago.
Some human cultures, such as the various peoples of the Arctic Circle , traditionally make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor-intensive process involving fiber making, spinning, and weaving.
Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One approach simply involves draping the cloth. The clothes may simply be tied up dhoti and sari ; or pins or belts hold the garments in place kilt and sarong.
The cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes can wear the garment. Another approach involves measuring, cutting, and sewing the cloth by hand or with a sewing machine. Clothing can be cut from a sewing pattern and adjusted by a tailor to the wearer's measurements.
An adjustable sewing mannequin or dress form is used to create form-fitting clothing. If the fabric is expensive, the tailor tries to use every bit of the cloth rectangle in constructing the clothing; perhaps cutting triangular pieces from one corner of the cloth, and adding them elsewhere as gussets.
Traditional European patterns for men's shirts and women's chemises take this approach. These remnants can also be reused to make patchwork hats, vests, and skirts.
Modern European fashion treats cloth much less conservatively, typically cutting in such a way as to leave various odd-shaped cloth remnants. Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may turn them into quilts. In the thousands of years that humans have been making clothing, they have created an astonishing array of styles, many of which have been reconstructed from surviving garments, photos , paintings , mosaics , etc.
Costume history can inspire current fashion designers , as well as costumiers for plays , films , television , and historical reenactment. The mechanization of the textile industry made many varieties of cloth widely available at affordable prices. Styles have changed, and the availability of synthetic fabrics has changed the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire.
Activewear has also become a large and growing market. Jeans in the Western dress code are worn by both men and women. There are several unique styles of jeans found which include: The licensing of designer names was pioneered by designers like Pierre Cardin in the s and has been a common practice within the fashion industry from about the s.
By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles. This process began hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles.
Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produced Western clothing. Donated used clothing from Western countries are also delivered to people in poor countries by charity organizations. People may wear ethnic or national dress on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays.
Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu. Most sports and physical activities are practiced wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons.
Common sportswear garments include shorts , T-shirts , tennis shirts , leotards , tracksuits , and trainers. Specialized garments include wet suits for swimming , diving or surfing , salopettes for skiing and leotards for gymnastics.
Also, spandex materials are often used as base layers to soak up sweat. Paris set the fashion trends for Europe and North America Women wore dresses all day, everyday. Day dresses had a drop waist, which was a sash or belt around the low waist or hip and a skirt that hung anywhere from the ankle on up to the knee, never above. Daywear had sleeves long to mid-bicep and a skirt that was straight, pleaded, hank hem, or tired.
Jewelry was less conspicuous. In the 21st century a diverse range of styles exist in fashion, varying by geography, exposure to modern media, economic conditions, and ranging from expensive haute couture to traditional garb, to thrift store grunge. Fashion shows are events for designers to show off new and often extravagant designs.
Although mechanization transformed most aspects of human industry by the midth century, garment workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions that demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops , typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation.
While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries , clothes made in industrialized nations may also be manufactured similarly. Coalitions of NGOs , designers including Katharine Hamnett, American Apparel , Veja , Quiksilver , eVocal, and Edun and campaign groups like the Clean Clothes Campaign CCC and the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights as well as textile and clothing trade unions have sought to improve these conditions as much as possible by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which draw the attention of both the media and the general public to the workers.
The MFA, which placed quotas on textiles imports, was deemed a protectionist measure. India for example has not ratified sections 87 and 92 of the treaty. Despite the strong reactions that "sweatshops" evoked among critics of globalization , the production of textiles has functioned as a consistent industry for developing nations providing work and wages, whether construed as exploitative or not, to many thousands of people.
The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection.
Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA , along with other animal rights and animal liberation groups have called attention to fur farming and other practices they consider cruel. Clothing suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces.
From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion, and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice can hide in seams. Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, itches, becomes outworn, and loses functionality as when buttons fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zippers fail.
Often, people wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Some materials present problems. Cleaning leather is difficult, and bark cloth tapa cannot be washed without dissolving it.
Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but materials like these inevitably age. However, most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered and mended patching, darning , but compare felt. Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning dissolving dirt in solvents other than water.
Hot water washing boiling , chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing fabrics for hygiene purposes. Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category for example, dress shirts and suits.
Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh, and neat. Much contemporary casual clothing is made of knit materials that do not readily wrinkle, and do not require ironing.
Some clothing is permanent press , having been treated with a coating such as polytetrafluoroethylene that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing. Once clothes have been laundered and possibly ironed, they are usually hung on clothes hangers or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn.
Clothes are folded to allow them to be stored compactly, to prevent creasing, to preserve creases or to present them in a more pleasing manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores. A resin used for making non-wrinkle shirts releases formaldehyde , which could cause contact dermatitis for some people; no disclosure requirements exist, and in the U. Government Accountability Office tested formaldehyde in clothing and found that generally the highest levels were in non-wrinkle shirts and pants.
In past times, mending was an art. A meticulous tailor or seamstress could mend rips with thread raveled from hems and seam edges so skillfully that the tear was practically invisible.
Today clothing is considered a consumable item. Mass-manufactured clothing is less expensive than the labor required to repair it. Many people buy a new piece of clothing rather than spend time mending. The thrifty still replace zippers and buttons and sew up ripped hems. Used, unwearable clothing can be repurposed for quilts , rags , rugs , bandages , and many other household uses. It can also be recycled into paper.
In Western societies, used clothing is often thrown out or donated to charity such as through a clothing bin. It is also sold to consignment shops , dress agencies, flea markets , and in online auctions. Used clothing is also often collected on an industrial scale to be sorted and shipped for re-use in poorer countries. There are many concerns about the life cycle of synthetics, which come primarily from petrochemicals.
Excess inventory of clothing is sometimes destroyed to preserve brand value. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Outfit disambiguation. Evolution of hair and History of clothing and textiles. Four types of women's clothing which end above the knees: History of Western fashion and Category: Garment industry , knitting , and weaving. The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Dress coat " white tie " Ball gown Frock coat Full dress uniform Morning dress. Tuxedo " black tie " Evening gown Mess dress uniform Black lounge suit.
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